Sampling Inspection involves inspecting a relatively small number of items from a batch or lot and then using the results of this sample to either accept or reject the entire lot. The accept/reject criteria is the number of defective items found in the sample.
Sampling inspection relies on statistical probability and it is possible that a good batch will be wrongly rejected, or a bad batch will be wrongly accepted. This can have significant economic consequences and so it is usual to use a published sampling plan, such as ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003.
For more specific information on sampling see: