|Team Tools Overview
One of the precepts of Total Quality Management, and now continued into Six Sigma, is that groups generally make better decisions than individuals, and that the group should be cross-functional. It should include everybody who can contribute, regardless of their position in the hierarchy, rather than just specialized individuals.
This section includes a selection of tools that are best used by groups. They are either graphical methods that promote group input, or ways of capturing the individual inputs and then refining them to discover the best solution, and to achieve 'buy in' to that solution.
A team-based method of organizing large amounts of data. Typically, brainstormed ideas are written on sticky notes. These are stuck to a wall and progressively organized into logical groupings by the participants.
A method of encouraging a team to generate creative ideas. All ideas are written down, and no idea, however apparently silly, is criticized. The list can be culled later using other methods e.g. multivoting.
|Cause and Effect Diagrams
A graphical tool used to list and categorize possible causes of a problem. It looks like a fish skeleton and is sometimes called a fishbone diagram.
The main categories are often selected as Methods, Equipment, Personnel, Materials, but this is optional:
See Cause and Effect Diagram
Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. This applies when FMEA is carried out at the design stage and looks at ways the item can fail during use. Potential failure modes include failures from the item becoming defective and through the way the item is used.
The failure modes for a step ladder could include potential failure because a component could corrode and fail. They could also include a potential failure because the user's foot could slip on the treads.
|Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
A method for evaluating risk. Each potential failure mode is evaluated for:
S: the severity of the consequences if it does occur
O: the probability of occurrence
D: the probability of detection before shipping.
Each of these is rated on a scale from 1 to 10, and the three values multiplied to find the Risk Priority Number (RPN). If the RPN is above a specified threshold, action is taken to reduce it. The FMEA is often used as the basis for Control.
See Cause and Effect Diagrams
See Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
|Force Field Analysis
A team based method of brainstorming the 'drivers' and 'restraints' that affect progress to a desired goal: