APRIL 2007  
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MiC Quality


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February 2007



Topic: Measurement Systems/ Gage R&R

In this issue:

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:: Topic: Measurement Systems/ Gage R&R

NOTE: Measurement Systems for both attributes and variables are covered in the MiC Quality course on Measurement Systems Analysis

Measurement Systems Analysis

Measurement systems include variation and error, just like any other process. When a characteristic is measured the readings that are recorded include this measurement error.

It is easy to overlook this and assume that measurements reflect the true value of the characteristic. This can result in fruitless attempts to improve the process when the apparent variation is caused by variations in the measuring system. Measurement Systems Analysis should be an essential precursor to introducing Statistical Process Control, or using Design of Experiments

The variation of the measurement system is generally divided into repeatability error and reproducibility error, hence Gage R&R studies.

Errors that affect the accuracy of the measurement include bias, linearity and stability.


The system that establishes the relationship between a measuring device and a traceable reference standard. Calibration may include detecting, correlating, reporting or eliminating discrepancies in the accuracy of the measuring instrument.

Calibration Standard

A standard of known accuracy. The standard should be traceable to the national standard of the country concerned. In the United States that is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (www.nist.gov).

Gage R&R

Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility. The combined effects of measuring systems repeatability and reproducibility:


The change in bias over the operating range of a measuring instrument.

Measurement Error

See Measurement Systems Variation.

Measurement Systems Capability

Short term estimate of the Measurement System Variation.

Measurement Systems Variation

See Gage R&R


See Measurement Systems Analysis


See Number of Distinct Categories

... continued in the Six Sigma Glossary

See more Measurement Systems definitions in Mic Quality Six Sigma Glossary and study them with examples in our MSA online course.

:: Statistical Process Control (SPC), Advanced Statistical Process Control
:: Design of Experiments (DOE), Advanced Design Of Experiments
:: Primer in Statistics, Advanced Statistics
:: Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)/ Gage R&R
:: FREE Excel Primer
:: FREE Sample Module "Introduction to Statistics"
FREE Statistics Reference Booklet
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440+ terms Six Sigma Glossary
(includes all terms in the ASQ SSBB Six Sigma Black Belt Body of Knowledge)


Sigma Calculator


Book Reviews

:: Reference Tables
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