leader and statistician W.
Edwards Deming created the
Create constancy of
purpose toward improvement of product
and service, with the aim of becoming
competitive and staying in business,
and providing jobs.
- Adopt the new philosophy. We are in
a new economic age. Western management
must awaken to the challenge, must learn
their responsibilities, and take on leadership
- Cease dependence on inspection to achieve
quality. Eliminate the need for inspection
on a mass basis by building quality into
the product in the first place.
- End the practice of awarding business
on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize
total cost. Move toward a single supplier
for any one item, on a long-term relationship
of loyalty and trust.
- Improve constantly and forever the
system of production and service, to improve
quality and productivity, and thus constantly
- Institute training on the job.
- Institute leadership. The aim of supervision
should be to help people and machines
and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision
of management is in need of overhaul,
as well as supervision of production workers.
- Drive out fear, so that everyone may
work effectively for the company.
- Break down barriers between departments.
People in research, design, sales, and
production must work as a team, to foresee
problems that may be encountered with
the product or service during production
and in use
exhortations, and targets for the work
force asking for zero defects and new
levels of productivity. Such exhortations
only create adversarial relationships,
as the bulk of the causes of low quality
and low productivity belong to the system
and thus lie beyond the power of the
a. Eliminate work standards
(quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute
b. Eliminate management by objective.
Eliminate management by numbers, numerical
goals. Substitute leadership.
a. Remove barriers
that rob the hourly worker of his right
to pride of workmanship. The responsibility
of supervisors must be changed from
sheer numbers to quality.
b. Remove barriers that rob people in
management and in engineering of their
right to pride of workmanship. This
means, inter alia, abolishment of the
annual or merit rating and of management
- Institute a vigorous program of education
- Put everybody in the company to work
to accomplish the transformation. The
transformation is everybody's job.